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History and Geography

History Of Alanya

There is no exact knowledge about the date of first settlement in Alanya. Evidence that human skeletons and fossils were discovered in the excavations at the Kadirini Cave, located in the North-east part of the region, in 1957, have strenghten the claiming of Heredotus the people that lived in this region received clans that came after the Troy war (1820 B.C.) It is known that the Hittites included Kilikia and Pamphylia into their dominion in the XIV th. century B.C. That the word "Pamphylia" means "multiracial, multikind" have strenghten the fact of goners settlement by passing through the region and realizing these fertile lands. Alanya was known to the Greeks as "Coracesium", Roman "Kalonoros", Seljuks "Alaiye" and Turks "Alanya".

History 1

Although the whole of Kilikia was invaded by the Great Antiochus III., the Roman Emperor, in 224-188 B.C. it preserved its independence because of the difficulty encountered in the siege and conquest of Coracesium. The Coracesium finally captured by a pirate Typhon, went even further to threaten the Assyrian Kingdom and went on to exercise piracy as an easy way of living and in this period it retained its independence. Corsairs built a thick wall by using large stones with no cement from the present Arab Evliyası to Ehmedek and used the caves as treasuries and also held in custody his hostages up to payment of a ransom. They had the courage to sneak into the shores of the Roman Empire a powerful empire of the period. With the intention of freeing the people from their hunger problems, this notorious pirate leader was wiped out by the battle proclaimed on him by Anthiochus in 139 B.C. The pirates regained strength later, to find an eventual solution, the Roman emperor appointed Anthiochus with extensive powers. In spite Anthiochus enlarged the Empire's borders the pirates day by day grew even stronger and continued to capture many towns and cities along the shores. This time to find an absolute ending to these harassment's the Roman Emperor appointed Pompeus who was one of the most powerful commanders of the army to put a stop to the pirates activities and with his merciless attacks from the land and sea this commander wiped out the pirates that they could not develop strength again.

The Romans who ruled these regions in every sense handed over the Cilicia region to Antonius after the death of Caesar . Octavius, competitor of Antonius, declared a war against him. Antonius and Cleopatra were in Greece and their army lost the war, Octavious captured the whole region. In this period the cedar and pine trees extending as far as the coast had been cut by Cleopatra and sent to Egypt to be used in the construction of ships for her fleet. In the time of Trojan coins were minted in Coracesium. In medieval times, a castle of Calanoros was built on the ruins of Coracesium. Having came under the rule of Byzantines after Roman Empire, it’s name changed from Coracesium into Calanoros at that period. A church built in the castle after accepting of christianity by locals with others in Pamphylia and Cilicia. The region that became not strategic announced a patriarchate center of christianity in this period. Calanoros that was a Roman city in this period retained it’s indepence against Arabic attacks due to it’s geographic position difficult to be captured. Seljuks decided for Calanoros to dominate because they thought it’s possible only capture this struggle restrict to become dominion in whole Mediterranean. Ertokuş governor of Antalya authorized Calanoros to capture, encompassed the castle just after a attack plan. He besieged the city by land and sea. At the time, Calonoros was in the hands of a certain Kyr Vart, a member of an independent Christian dynasty. On realizing that defeat was inevitable, Vart did not resist and surrended in 1221.

History 2

The city was named Alaiye just after the order of Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat to his army on the way of Antalya, inside Alara Fortress about that performing an attack onto the city to join the Seljuks lands as soon as possible. Alaiye after the Sultan, reached its peak of glory during his reign and became the scene of great cultural activities and the second capital and winter residence of the Seljouks. The shipyard and watcher of it the Red Tower were built in this period. After the collapse of the Seljuk state, this area passed into the control of the Karamanoğulları dynasty and was sometimes administered by local rulers swearing allegiance to them. In 1471, during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, ( Fatih the Conqueror ), the city was controlled by a local ruler Kılıç Aslan Bey from Karamanids and the first attacks by a commander of Fatih named Rum Mehmet could not able to capture the city then the Ottoman army under the command of Gedik Ahmed Paşa, included the city within the borders of the Ottoman State in 1471. After capturing by Ottomans some reconstructions began in the castle and around. In 1571 Alaiye was annexed to Cyprus then to Konya as an administrative district governed by a Bey in 1864 and finally to Antalya in 1868. It has been getting richer from 1221 till now as a Turkish city with it’s cultural Turkish heritage.

Geographical Situation Of Alanya

Geographic Situation

Alanya is situated 36 degrees 32 minutes north and 32 degrees 1 minute east in the Mediterranean region of Turkey and it is on east of the 135th kilometers of Antalya. North of the city are the massive Taurus Mountains where the peaks reach up to 3,000 metres above sea level. You will also find here several plateaus with beautiful scenery where the local people live. Alanya is also known as 'Pearl of the Turkish Rivera' and is world-famous for it's kilometers of fine and clean beach, crystal-clear water and the mild Mediterranean climate. The historical past, the various natural and historical sights and the multicultural way of life have made Alanya an unforgettable experience. Many different kinds of watersports, the colorful bazaar and the happy night-life made Alanya very popular with local and European tourists with it’s rising population up to about 400.000 in summer seasons.

Geography 1

Topographic Features Of Alanya

On the road of the Meditarian sea coast Alanya is one of the most important settled cities with it's economic cultivation, fishing, cattle-breeding, hand skills and other functional specialities. The extension of the plateau and mountainous parts of the north side of the Taurus mountain range looking from the high plateu zone the highness counted from the sea is at about 1000 meters. The peninsula of Alanya covers a surrounding of 6500 meters long at the south. The land of the peninsula is apart from the Taurus mountains. Because the Taurus mountains do not give a pass into the north direction by sea, it's possible to get inside the Anatolian through the Kocdovat pass, Yel bridge, Eagle's nest and the Dim and Alara creeks make it possible to get into the Dim and Alara valley.

Geography 2

Flora and Fauna

The harbour had to be build in the east of course because of the strong connection of central Anatolian and the uprignt profile of the raising Alanya peninsula along the coast. Because Alanya is entitled to the typical Meditarian climate the summers are warm and dry and the winters luke-warm and rainy. In our region the winters pass most of the time like summer; the influence of the summer warmth gives the reaction that the summer offshore breeze from the sea to the land at afternoon is being Iowered. The high temperature of the sea warmth and the fact that you can keep on sun bading for a long time makes the attractiqn of Alanya higher. Because of our position in the Meditarian sea area we have the most fertile ground in Alanya witch gives us the existence of black kite and cedar forests in the area of high parts pf the northern mountains and calabrian pine in the area of the coast. With a sea like in incekum you have to get in the inner forest fields. In this forrest where there are Calabrian pines, Black Kites, Cedars, Firtress, Oaktrees, Junipers, Plane trees and Common Alders you will find forrest products Nike Poplars, lime, Chest-nuts and Hazelnuts.

The carpets, saddle bags, silken woven tissues, braces of dry flowers, mascots and dolls out of pumpkins, Laces, pinked writings, blouses and dresses made out of a kind of cheese cloth are made as gifts and memories objects in the waving frames owned to the people that live in the castle. Of course the beautiful caves that take place in the north and west side of the peninsula of Alanya, with different kind of rumours, take shape in the beauty of geologic as the pirates, love and phosphore caves. If you go to the north direction of the peninsula from the harbour the first cave you will cross is the pifrates cave. With a sea motor you can get into the 10m. Wide and 6 m. high entrance of the cave that widens up to the north.



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